EEOICPA Statistics for Claimants Living in Ohio

DOL Part B and Part E Statistics

NIOSH Dose Reconstruction Statistics

Ohio EEOICPA Facilities

Facility descriptions credit: DOE

The Ajax-Magnethermic Corp. was involved in induction heat treatment of various forms of uranium for National Lead Company of Ohio (Fernald) and also for General Electric (Hanford). The company fabricated an induction heating unit for NLO in 1961.

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From 1952 to 1957, Alba Craft provided a variety of machine shop services on natural uranium metal for National Lead Company of Ohio (Fernald). Early work at Alba Craft included general and developmental machining of threaded reactor fuel slugs for use at the Savannah River Site. Subsequent production-scale operations consisted of hollow drilling and turning of slugs for the Savannah River and Hanford plutonium-production reactors.
Remediation activities under the Formerly Utilized Site Remediation Action Program (FUSRAP) occurred in 1994-1995 under the Bechtel National Inc.(BNI) umbrella site remediation contract. Remediation was certified complete in 1997.
During the period of residual contamination, as designated by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and as noted in the dates above, employees of subsequent owners and operators of this facility are also covered under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act.

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From February to September 1956, Associate Aircraft Tool and Manufacturing Company machined hollow uranium slugs for the Hanford and Savannah River plutonium-production reactors under a subcontract from National Lead Company of Ohio (Fernald). Associate Aircraft machined approximately 96,000 slugs during the eight-month contract period.
Cleanup activities were performed in 1994-1995 by Thermo Nutech under the Bechtel National Inc. umbrella site remediation contract as part of the Formerly Utilized Site Remediation Action Program (FUSRAP).
During the period of residual contamination, as designated by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and as noted in the dates above, employees of subsequent owners and operators of this facility are also covered under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act.

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Between June 1943 and July 1944, DuPont and the University of Chicago subcontracted the Baker Brothers company to machine roll metal rods into uranium slugs that were used for fuel in the world's first production reactors located in Oak Ridge, TN and Hanford, WA.
Environmental cleanup under the Formerly Utilized Site Remediation Action Program was conducted in 1995. This work was performed under the Bechtel National Inc. umbrella contract for DOE site environmental remediation. This site's remedial action was certified complete in 2001.
During the period of residual contamination, as designated by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and as noted in the dates above, employees of subsequent owners and operators of this facility are also covered under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act.

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During the early stages of nuclear weapons production, uranium reactor fuel was produced by a variety of metallurgical techniques including extrusion, casting, and machining.
In February 1943, DuPont, acting as an agent of the Manhattan Engineer District, contracted B&T Metals to extrude rods from uranium metal billets for the Hanford reactor in Washington State. B&T Metals extruded an estimated 50 tons of uranium between March 1943 and August 1943.
Environmental cleanup under the Formerly Utilized Site Remediation Program (FUSRAP) was conducted in 1996. This work was performed by employees of SunPro as subcontractors to Bechtel National Inc., the company that held the umbrella contract for DOE site environmental remediation. This site's remedial action was certified complete in 2001.
During the period of residual contamination, as designated by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and as noted in the dates above, employees of subsequent owners and operators of this facility are also covered under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act.

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From 1943 to 1986, Battelle Memorial Institute performed atomic energy research and development as well as beryllium work for the Department of Energy and its predecessor agencies. The Battelle Laboratories have two separate locations in Columbus - King Avenue and West Jefferson. Battelle's research supported the government's fuel and target fabrication program, including fabrication of uranium and fuel elements, reactor development, submarine propulsion, fuel reprocessing, and the safe use of reactor vessels and piping.
The following activities were performed at the King Avenue location: processing and machining enriched, natural, and depleted uranium and thorium; fabricating fuel elements; analyzing radiochemicals; and studying power metallurgy. Beryllium work was conducted from 1943 until at least 1961.

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From 1943 to 1986, Battelle Memorial Institute performed atomic energy research and development for the Department of Energy and its predecessor agencies. The Battelle Laboratories have two separate locations in Columbus - King Avenue and West Jefferson. Battelle participated in research on fabrication of uranium and fuel elements, reactor development, submarine propulsion, fuel reprocessing, and the safe use of reactor vessels and piping.
At the West Jefferson location, Battelle operated a large hot cell facility and a research reactor. Reactor operations began in October 1956, and ended in December 1974. The reactor was defueled and partially dismantled in 1975 and Battelle's license was changed to possession-only status.
During the period of residual contamination, as designated by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and as noted in the dates above, employees of subsequent owners and operators of this facility are also covered under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act.

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From 1942 through 1945, National Lead operated a magnesium processing facility on the Luckey site for the U.S. government. In 1949, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) built a beryllium production facility at the site. The government built the plant to replace the production that was lost when the Brush Beryllium Lorain plant was destroyed by fire. The Brush Beryllium Company (now Brush Wellman) under contract to the AEC, produced beryllium pebbles at this site until 1958. Records indicate that the facility produced between 40,000 and 144,000 pounds of beryllium. In 1959, the AEC contracted with Brush to close down the facility. The site was sold to the Vulcan Materials Company in 1961.
In 1951, AEC sent approximately 1,000 tons of radioactively contaminated scrap metal to the Luckey site. This material was to be used by the Diamond Magnesium Company to resume magnesium processing at the idle facility. Former Brush Wellman employees report that the magnesium facility never resumed operations; however, some records indicate that the facility operated in the 1950s under contract by the General Services Administration (GSA). The radioactively contaminated scrap metal remained stored at the site.
Due to Brush Wellman’s status as a statutory beryllium vendor, all employees of Brush Wellman in the U. S., regardless of location, are covered for the entire period for which Brush Wellman and its predecessors supplied beryllium to the U. S. Department of Energy or its predecessor agencies. That period is defined as August 18, 1943 and continuing.
Additionally, on March 8, 2011 the corporate name of Brush Wellman, Inc. changed to Materion Brush, Inc.

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The Brush Cleveland facility conducted research on a process for producing uranium metal (1942-1943) through magnesium reduction of molten green salt (uranium tetrafluoride). The facility later conducted research and development with uranium (1949-1953) and extruded thorium billets into slugs which were placed in Hanford production reactors (1952-1953).
The Brush Cleveland facility also produced beryllium metal and beryllium oxide for the MED (1943-1946) and later for the AEC (1947-1965?).
During the period of residual contamination, as designated by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and as noted in the dates above, employees of subsequent owners and operators of this facility are also covered under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act.
Due to Brush Wellman’s status as a statutory beryllium vendor, all employees of Brush Wellman in the U. S., regardless of location, are covered for the entire period for which Brush Wellman and its predecessors supplied beryllium to the U. S. Department of Energy or its predecessor agencies. That period is defined as August 13, 1943 and continuing.
Additionally, on March 8, 2011 the corporate name of Brush Wellman, Inc. changed to Materion Brush, Inc.

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Brush Beryllium plant in Elmore, OH, was built in 1953. It began producing beryllium for the AEC in 1957 after operations at the Brush Luckey, OH, facility ended. (Prior to 1957 it produced beryllium for the commercial market only.) The plant supplied beryllium to the Y-12 plant in 1990 and Brush purchase orders show that shipments from its Elmore location continued to Los Alamos and Sandia through April 2001.
Due to Brush Wellman’s status as a statutory beryllium vendor, all employees of Brush Wellman in the U. S., regardless of location, are covered for the entire period for which Brush Wellman and its predecessors supplied beryllium to the U. S. Department of Energy or its predecessor agencies. That period is defined as August 13, 1943 and continuing.
Additionally, on March 8, 2011 the corporate name of Brush Wellman, Inc. changed to Materion Brush, Inc.

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The Lorain plant produced beryllium metal and beryllium oxide for the MED and the AEC. The plant was destroyed by fire in 1948.
Due to Brush Wellman’s status as a statutory beryllium vendor, all employees of Brush Wellman in the U. S., regardless of location, are covered for the entire period for which Brush Wellman and its predecessors supplied beryllium to the U. S. Department of Energy or its predecessor agencies. That period is defined as August 13, 1943 and continuing.
Additionally, on March 8, 2011 the corporate name of Brush Wellman, Inc. changed to Materion Brush, Inc.

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The Cincinnati Milling Machine Co. built electro-chemical machining units. In September 1963, the company tested the feasibility of electro-chemical machining of uranium. Eight normal uranium solid cylinders 1 inch in diameter and 1 inch long (approximately 14 pounds) were used in the test.

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Clifton had at least six large contracts with the AEC to supply beryllium products. By 1949, at least 8 beryllium-related deaths had occurred at Clifton.

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The Copperweld Steel Company of Warren, Ohio, straightened and outgassed a large number of uranium rods for the Hanford and Oak Ridge reactors between May and August of 1943.

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In 1943, the Manhattan Engineer District (MED) began the Dayton Project to investigate the chemistry and metallurgy of polonium. Because Monsanto Chemical Company was already working with polonium, it was chosen as contractor for the project.
In 1943, the MED-contracted work was performed at Monsanto’s Nicholas Road location (Unit I). As the project expanded, it moved into an old building belonging to the Dayton school district at 1601 West First Street, and by October 1944 all operations had been transferred to this location from Unit I. This site became known as Unit III. In early 1944 it became apparent that the space at Unit III was also inadequate, so the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers used a judicial proceeding to obtain ownership of a building known as the former Runnymeade Playhouse in Oakwood and turned it over to Monsanto for its use on the Dayton Project. Monsanto operated a laboratory at this second location and referred to it as Unit IV. Floors 4, 5 and 6 of the Warehouse at 601 East Third Street, Dayton, Ohio, were also utilized as part of project. When project needs again increased beyond the combined capacity of Units III and IV, preparations were made to move the entire operation to the present-day Mound facility in Miamisburg, Ohio. Processing began at Mound in February 1949. By the end of 1950, after either decontamination or demolition, the AEC released its ownership interest in the properties back to the original owners.
Throughout the time period for this facility from 1943 through 1950, the potential for beryllium exposure existed at this site.

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Diamond Magnesium is no longer an EEOICPA covered site.
The Painesville Site was formerly a magnesium production facility, owned by the Diamond Magnesium Company. In 1951, 1952 and 1953, Diamond Magnesium received approximately 1650 tons of radioactively contaminated scrap steel from the Lake Ontario Ordnance Works, to be used to control chlorine emissions during the magnesium production process.
Although this site was designated as part of the Formerly Utilized Site Remediation Action Program (FUSRAP) in 1992, no work under this program occurred prior to its transfer to the Army Corp.
During the period of residual contamination, as designated by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and as noted in the dates above, employees of subsequent owners and operators of this facility are also covered under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act.
In the early 1940s, the Defense Plant Corporation constructed a magnesium production facility on the Painesville site, which was owned by the Diamond Magnesium Company. The AEC provided the site with 800 tons of radioactively-contaminated scrap steel which was used to control chlorine emissions during the magnesium production. Storage of this scrap metal radioactively-contaminated soil was at the Painesville site.
The Painesville Site is located in Painesville, Ohio, approximately 22 miles northeast of Cleveland. Painesville had an operational magnesium production facility on the grounds, operated by the Diamond Magnesium Company in the 1940s. In the 1950s the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), a predecessor agency to the US Department of Energy, shipped radioactively contaminated scrap steel to the Painesville site for use in their magnesium production processes. Residual radiation from the scraps contaminated the soil at the site with uranium, radium and thorium.

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 The Grasselli Laboratory participated in the development the slug canning and coating processes for the Hanford site.

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Records indicate that in December 1952, uranium­ contaminated nickel scrap metals were sent to Duriron, which were used to produce stainless-steel piping for production equipment vital to Fernald atomic weapons production.
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The Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) at the Fernald site was established by AEC in 1951 to convert depleted uranium, natural uranium, and low-enriched uranium compounds into uranium metal and to fabricate uranium metal into feed stock for fuel and target elements for reactors that produced weapons-grade plutonium and tritium. The Fernald Plant, operated by National Lead of Ohio (NLO), along with the Weldon Spring Plant in Missouri, were feed materials plants built by the AEC in the 1950s to supply fuel to the increasing number of nuclear reactors located at Hanford and Savannah River. Production operations at the Fernald site continued until July 10, 1989, when they were suspended by the Department of Energy (DOE). DOE formally shut down the facility on June 19, 1991. During its production mission, the Fernald site produced over 225 million kilograms (500 million pounds) of high-purity uranium products to support United States defense initiatives.
Throughout the course of its operations, the potential for beryllium exposure existed at this site, due to beryllium use, residual contamination, and decontamination activities.

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The Evendale Plant's major mission is to build aircraft engines. The AEC used this facility to work with a variety of radioactive materials, including uranium and thorium. This facility was also involved in the refining or fabrication of beryllium or beryllium oxide.

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The Gruen Watch Co. conducted cold shaving and stamping and hot stamping washer tests for National Lead Company of Ohio (Fernald) in May and June 1956. The tests involved shaving and stamping uranium washers on a 60-ton mechanical press and stamping washers from strips of uranium heated in a salt bath. Only small quantities of radioactive materials were handled.

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Harshaw Chemical of Cleveland, Ohio refined black oxide and sodium diuranate to orange oxide and then to brown oxide for the Manhattan Project during World War II. The final result was a "green salt", which the Manhattan Project used to produce uranium hexafluoride for enrichment into weapons grade fuel for nuclear weapons at the gaseous diffusion plants. Harshaw also produced uranium hexafluoride during the war and this production activity was expanded in 1947. Harshaw production was reduced in 1951 and by May of 1953 the green salt plant was dismantled and the hexafluoride plant was placed on standby. The contract for removal of AEC equipment continued until September 30, 1955. This designation is limited to the Harshaw facility located at 1000 Harvard Avenue, Cleveland and generally referred to as the Harvard-Denison plant.
During the period of residual contamination, as designated by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and as noted in the dates above, employees of subsequent owners and operators of this facility are also covered under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act.
Harshaw Chemical Company was acquired by Kewaunee Oil Company in 1964. Kewaunee Oil was then acquired by the Gulf Oil Company in 1976. Kaiser Chemical Company acquired Harshaw interests in 1982.

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Intermittently from the 1943 to 1951, the Herring-Hall-Marvin Safe Company machined natural uranium metal slugs from rolled stock under subcontract to DuPont and the University of Chicago.
During the period of residual contamination, as designated by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and as noted in the dates above, employees of subsequent owners and operators of this facility are also covered under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act.

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Starting in 1952, Horizons, Inc. was under contract with the AEC for the production of granular thorium metal and conducted some thorium research work for Savannah River. Earlier work performed by Horizons, Inc. for the AEC did not involve radioactive substances.
During the period of residual contamination, as designated by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and as noted in the dates above, employees of subsequent owners and operators of this facility are also covered under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act.

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The AEC funded a Kettering Laboratory researcher's investigation of the biological effects of beryllium and its compounds. Kettering was also working on analytical methodology for beryllium for the AEC.

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The site machined various forms of uranium metal under subcontract to the National Lead Company (Fernald). The work was performed at two locations: Reading Road (from December 1954 through November 1955) and West 7th Street (from December 1955 through December 1957). Total production machining was approximately two or three hundred billets.
During the period of residual contamination, as designated by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and as noted in the dates above, employees of subsequent owners and operators of this facility are also covered under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act.

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Between May and August of 1944, McKinney Tool & Manufacturing of Cleveland, Ohio, turned and ground unbonded slugs to provide fuel for the first nuclear reactors, including the three Chicago piles; the Oak Ridge X-10 reactor; and the Hanford B, D, and F production reactors and 305 test pile.
During the period of residual contamination, as designated by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and as noted in the dates above, employees of subsequent owners and operators of this facility are also covered under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act.

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In 1954, Mitchell Steel Company may have participated in the machining of a sample lot of four hollow extrusion uranium billets from ingots for National Lead of Ohio (Fernald). It is unclear whether Mitchell conducted the test or performed any addition work for NLO or the AEC.

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In 1943, the Manhattan Engineer District began the Dayton Project to investigate the chemistry and metallurgy of polonium. From 1943 to 1948, this work was performed at several locations throughout Dayton, Ohio, all of which were too small to perform the mission. The Mound Plant was constructed in 1947 in Miamisburg, Ohio, to replace these earlier work locations. This plant was first occupied in May 1948 and became operational in February 1949.
The facilities' first mission was to manufacture polonium-beryllium initiators for atomic weapons. As part of this process, the site extracted polonium-210 from irradiated bismuth slugs and machined beryllium parts. Mound stopped producing initiators after the Pinellas Plant in Florida began producing accelerator-type neutron generators in 1957. In 1954, Mound began developing and producing weapons components containing tritium, and in 1969, the plant began recovering and purifying tritium from dismantled nuclear weapons. During the 1950s and 1960s the Mound Plant also developed and produced a variety of nonnuclear weapons components including detonators, cable assemblies, firing sets, ferroelectric transducers, and explosive timers. In 1995, Mound discontinued weapons components production.
The non-weapons work performed at the Mound Plant included the development and manufacture of radioisotope thermal generators; radioactive waste decontamination research; investigation of the properties of uranium, protactinium-231, and plutonium-239; and the separation of stable isotopes and noble gases.
Throughout the course of its operations, the potential for beryllium exposure existed at this site, due to beryllium use, residual contamination, and decontamination activities.
The non-weapons work performed at the Mound Plant included the development and manufacture of radioisotope thermal generators; radioactive waste decontamination research; investigation of the properties of uranium, protactinium-231, and plutonium-239; and the separation of stable isotopes and noble gases.
Throughout the course of its operations, the potential for beryllium exposure existed at this site, due to beryllium use, residual contamination, and decontamination activities.

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From 1963 to 1966, the Piqua Nuclear Power Facility was operated as a demonstration project by the City of Piqua. The facility contained a 45.5-megawatt (thermal) organically cooled and moderated reactor. In 1966, the AEC discontinued facility operations and terminated its contract with the city. The AEC dismantled and decommissioned the reactor between 1967 and 1969. The reactor fuel coolant and most of the radioactive materials were removed from the site.
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 The U.S. began construction of Portsmouth in 1952 in order to expand the nation's gaseous diffusion program. The gaseous diffusion plants already operating in Oak Ridge, TN and Paducah, KY were not able to fulfill the nation's need for highly enriched and low-enriched uranium. Portsmouth was used for isotope separation. Beginning in 1954, Portsmouth produced highly enriched uranium to support nuclear weapons production and, later, for use by submarine, research, and test reactors. The high-enrichment portion of the diffusion cascade was shut down in 1991.
On July 1, 1993, the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC)*, a government-owned corporation formed under the Energy Policy Act of 1992, assumed control of the plant's production activities. USEC, which was fully privatized in 1998, continued to produce enriched uranium for commercial use at this location until May 11, 2001 when production ceased. During the period of USEC production, the DOE maintained responsibility for addressing the environmental legacy left by historic plant operations.
Subsequent to USEC ceasing production, the DOE contracted with USEC to maintain the plant in cold standby until the decision was made to return the plant entirely back under DOE control, which was completed by September 2011. The PORTS Decontamination and Decommissioning project began under contract with Fluor-B&W Portsmouth LLC in March 2011.
Throughout the course of its operations, the potential for beryllium exposure existed at this site.

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The Ashtabula site(formerly known as Reactive Metals, Inc.) opened in 1962 and ended production in 1988. During this time, the site received uranium for processing under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor Agencies. Processing involved the extrusion and/or forging of depleted, normal and slightly enriched uranium metal, as well as experimental quantities of thorium metal, into driver and target elements for the Hanford and Savannah River weapons program reactors.
By April of 1993, DOE and RMI had formed a partnership to remediate the site and the Agency contracted with RMI Environmental Services (RMIES), a division of the RMI Titanium Company, to perform and manage the cleanup project. RMIES has since changed its name to EARTHLINE Technologies. All D&D work was completed in November 2006.
RMI of Ashtabula, Ohio, was the corporate successor of the Bridgeport Brass Company of Adrian, Michigan, which performed similar extrusion work from 1954 to 1961.
In addition to its work for DOE and its predecessor Agencies, Ashtabula performed work for the Department of Defense and a number of commercial entities under a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license.

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National Lead Company of Ohio (Fernald) contracted with Leblond Machine for the purchase of a rapid boring machine. In 1961, acceptances tests, using 17 tons of natural uranium, were conducted at Leblond Machine.

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In 1952, National Lead Company of Ohio (Fernald) used Tech-Art to grind inserts as part of a study of Firth Sterling HF carbide profile inserts in conjunction with the machining development program. Additional documentation shows that Tech-Art possessed a subcontract with NLO for "[m]achine shop operations on Government owned materials at prescribed hourly rates of pay."

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Tocco had a contract with National Lead of Ohio (Fernald) to develop induction heating coil equipment for heating uranium fuel cores. Tocco performed operational tests of these units at its Ohio facility, which took place during 1967-1968. The company received 2000 pounds of natural uranium machined fuel cores and 5600 pounds of depleted uranium machined fuel cores from NLO for testing.

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 At the request of National Lead Company of Ohio (Fernald), Vulcan Tool Company conducted experiments involving the cutting of normal uranium slugs and tubes on a Brehm cutter in October 1959.

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